Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery - Procedures, Care, Side Effects - Health Education - DesiMD Healthcare - India

Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery

Dr. Prof. Viral Patel profile Authored by Dr. Prof. Viral Patel on 11 Aug 2014 - 12:11.

Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery

Oral and Maxillofacial (OMF) Surgery refers to the procedures performed to correct the diverse range of diseases, injuries or defects in the head that includes the face, jaws, dentition, soft tissues of the oral and maxillofacial region, and the neck. Maxillofacial is the region of the facial skeleton including bones of the forehead, cheekbone, face, and jaws and regional soft tissues. OMF is a bridge between dentistry and medicine backgrounds of the physician with subspecialty for different conditions, that includes a diverse range of problems, including teeth removalto trauma involving the head region.

When is Oral-Maxillofacial Surgery required?

The OMF surgery is required in the following conditions:

  • To treat cancer of head, neck, face or connected part by removing tumorsfollowed by reconstruction of respective site which may include microvascular free tissue transfer.
  • To treat craniofacial facial deformity which is intended to correct the congenital or acquired facial deformity or injury to restore the facial functions.
  • To treat the ailments of the teeth or dental implants, jaws, temporomandibular joints, soft or hard tissues, salivary glands and lesions on the face.
  • To diagnose and treat thedeformities, disease or injuries ofthe cervico-facial structures.
  • To treat the conditions of the facial soft and hard tissue injuries of the craniofacial structures.
  • To enhance the facial aesthetics and improve quality of life through different surgical procedures at different sites.
  • To support oral and facial prosthetic devices by creating a favorable anatomy.
  • To reposition certain facial parts including orbital bones, cheeks, nose and associated parts, chin and jaws.
  • To treat aging related defects which may include cosmetic surgery to correct the anatomy of brows, forehead, eyelids, and so on.
  • In case of trauma involving multiple parts including facial areas,  head& neck, and  jaws
  • To treat cleft lip.
  • To treat inflammatory disorders of the joint including arthritis. Example: Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ) surgery.

What are the procedures considered under OMF Surgery?

The procedures performed under the OMF include:

  • To remove affected wisdom teeth and other orthodontic procedures.
  • To replace a missing tooth by placing an implant.
  • To place a bone graft.
  • To treat conditions of thejaw & fractures of jaws.
  • To correct the deformities of the forehead and upper part of a face.
  • To treat fractures of the facial skeleton.
  • To treat cysts and tumors of the jaw and facial region.
  • To treat oral and jaw cancers.
  • Rhinoplasty to reconstruct the nose.
  • Genioplasty to reconstruct the chin.

What are the possible pre-operative instructions?

  • Avoid eating or drinking for six to eight hours before undergoing intravenous sedation or general anesthesia.
  • Take medications as prescribed by the doctor.
  • Avoid narcotic pain killers before the scheduled appointment, as it may cause adverse event due to anesthesia.
  • Avoid stressful activities for two to three days before the planned surgery.

What are the possible side-effects after the procedure?

Some side effects after the procedure may include:

Excessive bleeding: You may experience oozing or blood-tinged saliva for one day after the surgery, which is normal. However, there might be excessive bleeding, which needs to be controlled. For this, applying pressure or folded gauze pad on the affected area for at least 45 min may work to get relief.

Pain: You may experience mild to severe pain after the procedure. However, it can be controlled with the help of prescribed medications (non-narcotics), most preferably before administering local anesthesia.

Inflammation and swelling: Swelling at the surgical site may occur soon after the surgery and may increase gradually for two to three days. It may be controlled by applying ice packs on the target site for atleast 20 minutes. Also, keeping the head at an elevation while sleeping, for atleast two nights after the surgery may lessen the swelling.

Nausea: Certain narcotic pain killer medications may induce nausea. However, drinking small amounts of carbonated liquids may help to relieve mild nausea.

Fever: Gettinga fever up to 24 hours after the procedure is normal.

Other common side effectsexperienced could be,difficulty in opening the mouth, ear pain, pain in the adjacent teeth, cracking at the mouth corners and so on.

What is the care needed, post the surgery?

Please follow the following do’s and don’t’s after the surgery:



Consume liquid or soft foods at least up to two days after the surgery.

Avoid eating or drinking spicy food items for at least two days after the procedure.

Maintain a good oral hygiene by brushing your teeth regularly and rinsing the mouth after each meal.

Avoid crunchy food for few days.

Use salt water (1/4th of teaspoon salt in a glass of warm water) to rinse the mouth. Do it for at least 5 times a day.

Avoid smoking for at least few days after the surgery.

Restrict rigorous activities for a few days after the surgery.

Avoid stress on the operated site.

Take all the medications as prescribed by the doctor.

Do not brush the surgical part for at least 4-5 days after the procedure.

Follow the instructions of revisiting the doctor.

Avoid driving soon after the surgery.


Do not use a straw to drink anything as sucking may cause bleeding.


*Disclaimer: This is not medical advice. The content is for educational purposes only. Please contact your doctor for any health care issues.