Types of Blood and Blood Disorders
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Types of Blood and Blood Disorders

Dr.Surya Rao Poodipeddi profile Authored by Dr.Surya Rao Poodipeddi on 10 Feb 2014 - 13:47.
Following from the previous article on Interesting Facts about Blood, this article reveals more information about Blood, the different types of blood and disorders.

Types of Blood:

Blood is not same in every person. It has four types of groups called blood groups with an Rh factor in every person. The four groups namely A, B, AB and O are distinct in each person and one cannot donate his/her blood to another unless the groups match.
Instead of saving a person, a mismatched blood if donated can kill the recipient. Every person has a distinct Rh factor, which may be Rh positive or Rh negative. A pregnant mother with Rh-negative blood group may cause critical illness to the baby about to be born unless protected by gammaglubulin injections before delivery.
Blood Conditions:
Blood never clots within the blood vessel. Only when it oozes out due to a cut or an injury it gets clotted to prevent loss of the precious blood. If the clotting mechanism either fails or functions improperly the person may bleed to death if not corrected immediately. Such a calamitous situation is seen in a congenital disease named Hemophilia, which is transmitted by a woman to her child without herself suffering from it. The male child if affected bleeds profusely whenever there is a cut or even a slight injury often requiring whole cell transfusions.
Anything may happen to a blood vessel. It may get cut. It may get exposed to outside during injuries due to accidents. It may get infected with several disease causing organisms. These can be obviated and fought by myriad antibodies traveling in the blood flow.  Several conditions affect blood. However, a few important conditions need a mention.
Hemophilia: Important congenital conditions affecting blood include Hemophilia and various types of anemia them important one being aplastic anemia, which can be corrected only through a compatible bone marrow transfusion.
Heart Attacks: The all important clotting diseases of blood vessels due to formation of thrombus within the walls of the blood vessel are too well known. If the clot affects a blood vessel in the heart it leads to the commonly encountered heart attacks. If the clot affects a blood vessel supplying brain we end up with a condition called stroke. 
TIA (Transient Ischemic Attacks): If the clot affects any other part we get a problem in the organ supplied by the affected blood vessel. In the lower limbs we come across a disease called TIA leading to gangrene of the part affected. Noted amongst this are Burgers disease and Polyarteritis nodosa. 
Hyperglycemia or Hypoglycemia: Amongst the metabolic diseases affecting blood is diabetes leading to either hyperglycemia  or hypoglycemia depending on the increase or decrease in blood sugar levels which the blood flow carries. The same is the case in Hypercholesterolemia the precursor to the formation of clots. Hundreds of disease forming substances or organisms travels in the blood including the transport of cancer cells as in leukemia.
Leukemia: Like red blood cells the blood carries white blood cells as well, the increase or decrease beyond normal acceptable levels leads to leukemia of various types and Agranulocytocis a condition which results due to the side effects of most of the drugs used.
A majority of conditions affecting the blood (save the congenital varieties, on which we have no control) are man-made because of his/her lifestyles and habits like smoking and drinking. Obesity is one such condition, which can be avoided unless heredofamilial. If only we train ourselves to adopt clean habits including regular physical exercises, majority of these conditions can be prevented or even controlled according to doctors.
*Disclaimer: This is not medical advice. The content is for educational purposes only. Please contact your doctor for any health care issues.