Proper functioning of the female body is possible when all the hormones produced by the ovaries, hypothalamus, pituitary gland and other endocrine glands are in balance. If the concentration of one or more hormones decreases or increases, a hormonal imbalance occurs. It leads to various health problems, because hormones regulate the work of all organs and systems. Hormonal imbalance negatively affects the functions of the reproductive system.
The main female hormones and their effect on the onset of pregnancy
Produced by the ovaries. They are needed to prepare the endometrium (the lining of the uterus) for the attachment of the embryo. They participate in the ovulation process.
If the production of estrogens is disrupted, ovulation does not occur, that is, the onset of pregnancy is impossible. In addition, the menstrual cycle is disrupted, which also leads to problems with conception.
It is necessary for the onset of pregnancy and its maintenance.
Elevated progesterone levels can lead to amenorrhea (absence of menstruation), and if a woman is already pregnant, then to disorders of the placenta. The result of a reduced concentration of progesterone is the absence of ovulation, a delay in fetal development.
Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
Stimulates the maturation of the follicle.
An increase in the concentration of FSH indicates the depletion of the ovaries, leads to menstrual disorders and even to the complete absence of menstruation. Another consequence of a high level of FSH is the proliferation of the inner layer of the uterine mucosa.
Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
Controls ovulation, promotes the formation of a yellow body.
Deviation of the LH level from the norm leads to polycystic ovaries, that is, to the appearance of numerous cysts on them. Ovarian functions are also disrupted, which is why the follicle does not mature, and ovulation does not occur.
Responsible for future lactation, participates in the regulation of the menstrual cycle.
An increase in prolactin levels (hyperprolactinemia) leads to suppression of FSH and LH production, lack of ovulation and even infertility. With hyperprolactinemia, the menstrual cycle is disrupted. In addition, with an excess of prolactin, a sufficient layer of the endometrium does not grow, which is why even a fertilized egg (embryo) cannot be implanted into the uterine wall. Hyperprolactinemia is associated with about 40% of cases of non-pregnancy.
It is worth remembering that all hormones affect the work of the reproductive system. For example, a lack of thyroid hormones can lead to a decrease in libido, a frozen pregnancy or to congenital malformations of the fetus. Therefore, do not be surprised if, if pregnancy does not occur or preparation for conception, the doctor prescribes tests for the level of various hormones in the body, and not just those listed above.
How to normalize hormonal balance?
It is necessary to normalize the hormonal balance in order to increase the chances of the onset and successful course of pregnancy. Blood tests allow to identify deviations in the level of hormones from the norm. According to their results, the doctor recommends therapy.
Depending on the degree of deviation from the normal level, various drugs of both hormonal and non-hormonal nature are used.
In addition, to normalize the hormonal balance, experts recommend adjusting the lifestyle:
- Eat right.
Often hormonal imbalance leads to an increase in body weight. To reduce weight, it is necessary to reduce the use of refined sugar, which is a lot in flour products, sweets, lemonades and fast food, limit the number of fatty, spicy dishes.
Experts recommend eating more often and in small portions. The basis of the diet should be foods with a high fiber content, vegetables and fruits, cereals. A mandatory element of the diet is protein, which is abundant in chicken, turkey, eggs and cottage cheese. It is also important to eat foods rich in omega acids: olives and olive oil, fatty fish. Omega-acids normalize metabolism.
In the afternoon, it is important not to drink strong coffee and tea, energy drinks.
- Get rid of bad habits.
It has been proven that nicotine increases the production of cortisol, a stress hormone, and it leads to an increase in prolactin. In addition, cortisol reduces the concentration of progesterone and increases the level of androgens (male sex hormones) in the female body.
Alcohol affects the adrenal glands, as a result of which they begin to actively produce male hormones in the female body.
- Move more.
Sports loads should be moderate and regular. Long walks, swimming are suitable.
Activity not only helps to normalize weight and improve physical fitness, but also improves mood, reduces stress levels.
- Normalize sleep.
You need to sleep at least 7-8 hours a day, while experts recommend going to bed no later than 23 hours.
The fact is that many hormones are produced only at a specific time and under certain conditions (for example, when a person is at rest or at night).
Regular lack of sleep worsens mood, leads to irritability, nervousness, problems with appetite, and even obesity.
- Avoid stressful situations.
In a state of stress, the concentration of adrenaline and cortisol in the body increases. If the level of adrenaline and cortisol is too high, obesity often develops, mood worsens, problems with the heart and blood vessels may occur.
To reduce anxiety, experts recommend listening to calm music, doing needlework, and spending time on hobbies.
- Have a regular sex life.
Sex helps restore the balance of female sex hormones. In addition, during intimacy, the hormone oxytocin is released, which helps to relax, resist depression, as well as serotonin, which is called the hormone of happiness.
Remember that each recommendation is aimed at normalizing the hormonal balance, so you should follow all the appointments of a specialist, and not selectively – only those that are convenient for you.