An active lifestyle, professional and amateur sports are good for health, but there is also a downside to the coin: sports are fraught with injuries, including very serious ones. Fractures, bruises, sprains, ruptures of ligaments and muscles are frequent companions of professional athletes and amateurs. Often sports injuries not only knock a person out of the usual rut for a long time, but also cause deplorable consequences, up to complete disability. To prevent them, a comprehensive recovery is necessary under the supervision of experienced specialists.
A well-designed rehabilitation program will shorten the recovery period, prevent the development of serious complications, allow you to return to training as soon as possible and continue doing what you love. But the success of sports injury treatment depends on a combination of factors.
For effective recovery, it is required to draw up an individual scheme of rehabilitation measures, adhere to a personalized approach to the patient and continuously perform exercises to regain lost functions.
Features of rehabilitation in sports
Sports injuries account for about 2-7% of the total. According to this indicator, rugby, hockey, boxing, martial arts and football traditionally lead the world.
Damage classification is usually carried out according to the following criteria:
- Type – bruises, sprains, tears, fractures and other sports injuries.
- Degrees of severity – light, medium, heavy.
- Localization and reason.
Depending on the causes and nature of the occurrence, the damage can be acute and chronic.
The first appear suddenly as a result of a single strong impact, and the second – as a result of repeated exposure of the same (or several) factors to a certain area.
Often, the appearance of chronic disorders is caused by overload due to repetitive movements of the same type. A typical example may be elbow injury or tunnel syndrome in tennis players, shoulder joint bursitis in swimmers, knee injuries in basketball players and jumpers.
Medical rehabilitation is deservedly considered an integral part of sports medicine. It is a complex of measures that restore health, lost functions and efficiency of the body after exposure to diseases or injuries. In fact, these are measures of full recovery and/or compensation of the body’s capabilities:
- impaired physiological functions;
- psychoemotional status;
- social and professional opportunities;
- functional reserves, including an increase in the sanogenetic potential of the body.
If full recovery cannot be achieved, rehabilitation measures are aimed at compensating for lost or impaired functions, slowing down the further progression of disorders, preventing the development of pathological processes that can lead to temporary and sustained disability.
The duration of the recovery period depends on the severity of the condition in case of sports injuries. They can be mild, not causing significant disability (the recovery period does not exceed 10 days), moderate severity, which are accompanied by pronounced changes in the body (disability for a period of 10 to 30 days), and severe (over 30 days). The rehabilitation program is compiled strictly individually.
Treatment is selected depending on the type and location of the injury, as well as the general condition of the patient.
Tasks of rehabilitation activities for athletes
After injuries, damaged parts of the body can remain motionless for a long time, which is fraught with the appearance of edema, circulatory and lymphatic disorders, and the development of muscular atrophy. Indications for rehabilitation measures are the receipt of any damage, reduced mobility, violation or complete loss of motor functions. They are prescribed in the early period after a fracture, during rehabilitation after surgery or endoprosthetics.
A well-chosen rehabilitation therapy program:
- accelerates the regeneration of damaged tissues;
- restores ligaments, muscles and tendons to their natural state;
- reduces or completely eliminates pain, which is a frequent companion of sports injuries;
- preserves and improves the motor activity of the musculoskeletal system;
- restores damaged vessels and prevents the development of puffiness;
- is a means of preventing atrophic processes after prolonged immobilization;
- allows you to fully recover and return to sports.
The main condition for success is an integrated approach. Therefore, several specialists take part in the diagnosis and therapy at once: a physical therapy doctor, an osteopath, a psychologist, a neurologist, a rehabilitologist.
Consistency is equally important. At the initial stage, vascular changes and swelling are stopped. As a rule, these disorders are associated with the immobility of the whole body or its individual parts. And, unfortunately, they are inevitable. The faster vascular disorders and edema are eliminated, the more favorable the overall prognosis. The next step is to normalize the tone and elasticity of the athlete’s muscles.
Returning to the usual life is often painful, but sometimes unpleasant sensations cannot be avoided. Our doctors have the necessary experience and equipment to make treatment as comfortable as possible. We gradually, step by step, restore motor activity and lost functions.
No excessive loads, pain and stress: only a smooth increase and strict dosing! A mandatory step is to strengthen the general condition of the musculoskeletal system.
Participation in the treatment process of a psychologist allows you to avoid stress and depression, which often affect the outcome of treatment. The prospect of returning to sports is another psychological factor that accelerates the process.
With any injuries, especially those that required the intervention of a surgeon (and possibly repeated), the natural functioning of the body as a whole is disrupted. The consequences of traumatic brain injuries and spinal injuries are especially dangerous.
Osteopathy is an integral system of manual diagnostics and treatment that restores nervous regulation, blood circulation and biomechanics of the human body. Osteopaths with their sensitive hands “adjust” the body and eliminate the causes of pathological changes.
From the point of view of osteopathy, most sports injuries are manifested by disorders of nervous regulation, microcirculation (movement of blood and other fluids in the body), biomechanics (mobility of tissues of a particular area). Organs and tissues of a healthy person have their own physiological shape, density and temperature. With any pathological changes, and sports injuries are no exception, these characteristics can change – organs shift, increase, and condense.
It is these changes caused by various sports disciplines that the osteopath probes and removes obstacles – congestion in the vessels, joints, musculoskeletal apparatus, nerves.
Methods of osteopathic correction for injuries accelerate tissue regeneration, normalize the functioning of bones after fractures.
Gentle manual action:
- eliminates swelling;
- stops the inflammatory process;
- gently and painlessly returns the movable segments to their place;
- stimulates the formation of callus – a mandatory factor of bone fusion after fractures.
It is proved that the use of osteopathic methods can reduce the duration of rehabilitation treatment by half.
Often negative consequences are caused not only by the injury itself, but also by altered deformed tissues of the body. At the site of the injury, scar tissue is formed, which already has a different elasticity and properties that are not characteristic of this site. As a result, chronic pain associated with nerve compression and microcirculation disorders may appear.
In case of fractures (even those that have already fused) and injuries, osteopathic correction allows you to restore normal joint mobility, eliminate tension in the tissues around the injury and in the adjacent areas, stimulate and significantly accelerate the recovery process, restore innervation and elasticity.
Initially restored balance and mutual arrangement of organs, disturbed due to sports injury and / or surgery, will prevent the development of complications and chronic pain. The same applies to long-term consequences, which at first glance are difficult to associate with trauma.
Osteopathy also has an excellent effect in head injuries. Timely osteopathic correction allows you to restore anatomical micro-mobility of the skull bones, proper blood supply and brain health. The intervention of an osteopath can prevent the development of headaches, dizziness and other pathological changes in the brain that accompany traumatic brain injuries of any etiology.
This applies to sports injuries and osteopathic treatment for various birth injuries in children. The human body feels the consequences of such injuries all its life. Osteopathic correction is necessary for the patient to forget about them forever.
Movement is a natural and basic function of the body. The effect of special exercises is based on the close relationship of muscles and joints with internal organs, nervous system and metabolism.
Physical therapy for injuries:
- improves metabolic processes in damaged and nearby tissues;
- stimulates the nervous system;
- accelerates blood circulation and lymph outflow from the affected area;
- reduces swelling and congestion in sports injuries.
The psychological effect of physical therapy is also of great importance. Physical exercises educate athletes to have a conscious attitude to their body, maintain an optimistic attitude and develop the necessary skills. In order for physical therapy classes in case of injuries to be really effective, it is important to follow the basic principles of physical therapy.
The tactics of restorative treatment are selected taking into account the individual characteristics of the athlete’s body, the localization of pathological processes, the stage of damage, the patient’s age and load tolerance.
Within the framework of physical therapy, the modern Norwegian technique of Neurac is also used. These are classes on a specialized Redcord simulator, which was used in the preparation of Olympic athletes in Salt Lake City in 2002 (by the way, the Norwegians took almost all the prizes there).
The system is a kinesiotherapy unit with loops and slings that allows you to work with patients in a suspended “anti-gravity” state. Such treatment is safe and comfortable.
The painless activation of the muscular framework and the involvement of deep stabilizer muscles in the work makes it possible to work out all the departments of the area damaged by injury, stabilize joints, improve the elasticity and functionality of the musculoskeletal system. The effectiveness of Redcord is due to the disconnection of “surface” muscles during exercise and working only with deep ones.
In a suspended state, an injured athlete can perform movements of any complexity by leveling the gravitational load on the damaged parts of the body.
Rehabilitation therapy after sports injuries is complemented by kinesiotaping. Sticking special patches on the skin is effective for injuries and after surgical interventions. Tapes eliminate pain and inflammation, affect nerve endings due to tension and have a therapeutic effect without medication.
The tapes facilitate the movement of limbs or joints, eliminate swelling and hematomas, have a lymphatic drainage effect and gently stabilize the joint.
Intensive sports not only comprehensively strengthen the body, but also create significant risks of injury. Often, people who are intensively engaged in sports are prone to damage to muscle and connective tissue, which requires a competent recovery process under the supervision of a doctor.
Neglect of therapeutic measures is fraught not only with the end of an athlete’s career, but also with prolonged, chronic complications and a violation of the quality of life. An integrated approach combining the methods of osteopathy, physical therapy and other methods of restorative medicine allows you to achieve good results in a short time.