Infertility is a fairly common problem. Every year the number of infertile couples only increases. There are more than two dozen infertility factors. In more than 60 percent of cases, the causes of infertility are directly related to a woman’s health, the rest are the male factor.
The diagnosis of infertility is made to a married couple when she lives a regular sexual life, not being protected at all for one year, but pregnancy does not occur. Infertility is also considered cases when pregnancy always ends with spontaneous miscarriage in the early stages. Pathologies can be caused by various disorders of reproductive functions in a woman or a man, diseases of the genitals, intoxication of the whole body, general or endocrine diseases, as well as mental and neurological disorders. Only a doctor can identify the cause by conducting a special examination for infertility. This condition is not an independent disease, it often manifests itself as a consequence of various pathologies of the body’s systems and organs. To find out, it is necessary to conduct infertility tests. According to their results, the doctor will be able to make a diagnosis.
Factors of infertility in women
- Primary infertility is a condition of a woman in which she has never had a pregnancy, that is, there is a fact of congenital pathology, abnormalities in the development of reproductive organs, or a consequence or complication of an inflammatory, infectious or other transmitted disease.
- Secondary infertility consists in the impossibility of re-conception in the case of an already existing successful pregnancy in the anamnesis, regardless of its outcome. Secondary infertility is divided into absolute or incurable, as well as relative, which is amenable to therapy.
There are the following factors of female infertility:
- Violation of the functioning of appendages, characterized by failures and irregularity of the menstrual cycle of a woman. In general, any pathological manifestations and disorders in the menstrual cycle are the first sign of the disease. A normal cycle indicates that the egg stably goes through all the necessary stages of maturation, ovulation, after which it comes out during menstruation. Disorders in the functioning of appendages cause a failure of the regularity of the monthly cycle. Physiologically, the irregularity of the cycle is the norm only at the very beginning of female puberty, as well as during menopause.
- Endocrine infertility is a complex of hormonal disorders that lead to irregular ovulation or their absence in a woman. It may be based on various disorders of the sex glands, thyroid gland, as well as hypothalamic-pituitary regulation. If the restoration of impaired functions is carried out with infertility of endocrine genesis, this will lead to the onset of a long-awaited pregnancy in 75-85 percent of cases. In all other cases, the elimination of this factor by IVF is promising today. Every third infertile woman has exactly endocrine infertility.
- Obstruction of the fallopian tubes is either a congenital anomaly, or a consequence of an inflammatory process and an infectious disease of the pelvic organs. Obstruction of the fallopian tubes is diagnosed in the case of complete or significant partial overlap of the tubes, which is caused by adhesive processes that modify the structure and shape of the fallopian tubes. If a woman has an obstruction of the tubes, the sperm simply will not be able to penetrate into the uterine cavity and, therefore, will not be able to fertilize the egg. Or an even more dangerous violation happens – ectopic pregnancy. In this case, the embryo cannot penetrate into the uterine cavity, and therefore it is fixed on the wall of the tube. It should be noted that ectopic pregnancy is an extremely dangerous condition that requires immediate surgical intervention.
- Violation of metabolic processes in the female body is a frequent factor in the occurrence of infertility. It is not for nothing that doctors note that women who suffer from obesity or excessive thinness often have a problematic pregnancy, and in some cases it is impossible. The human body is an integral system, and serious metabolic disorders will necessarily affect the work of all organs.
- The presence of latent sluggish infections of the genitals, which are virtually impossible to detect without special studies, quite often cause infertility of a woman. Infections such as chlamydia occur in the female body without obvious symptoms and signs, but at the same time they represent a serious obstacle to conceiving a child.
- The immunological factor of infertility is the pathogenic activity of the immune system on sperm and the sperm of a particular or all men. In the presence of this type of infertility, the woman’s immune system perceives the ejaculate as aggression and a threat to the body. Antisperm antibodies are produced that destroy sperm membranes. There are several types of immune reactions of women, as well as autoimmune processes in men, when the fertilizing function of spermatozoa is disrupted.
- Cervical infertility is characterized by violations of the physico-chemical component of the cervical fluid in the cervix. In the presence of cervical infertility, sperm are not able to overcome the barrier of the cervix. The reason for it lies in inflammatory diseases, hormonal disorders, pathological changes in the microflora of the mucous membrane, as well as cervical fluid.
A woman who cannot get pregnant for a long period of time with regular sexual contacts needs to undergo a comprehensive examination for infertility. First of all, go to a gynecologist and an endocrinologist. The process of diagnosing female infertility includes a very wide range of various hardware and laboratory tests, according to the results of which the doctor establishes an accurate diagnosis and prescribes appropriate treatment. Our clinic employs experienced specialists. In addition, we have the most modern equipment, which allows us to make an accurate diagnosis as quickly as possible and prescribe effective treatment.
Factors of infertility in men
- Violation of working capacity, sperm motility.
- Disorders of spermatogenesis – the process of sperm production.
- Violation of erectile functions.
- Immunological incompatibility.
- The presence of varicose veins of the testicles (varicocele).
- Infectious and inflammatory diseases of the genital area.
- Hormonal balance disorders.
- Metabolic disorders, lack of vitamins and proteins in food.
Infertility of unknown origin
When all the analyses, studies have already been done and all kinds of diagnostic research methods have been used, and the cause of the disease has not been clarified, then infertility of unclear genesis is diagnosed. Every year, more and more new diagnostic methods appear, and the proportion of married couples with a similar diagnosis is falling inexorably. Unexplained infertility, also called idiopathic, means that the cause of the pathology has not been found out. With infertility of unclear genesis, IVF often becomes the only possible way out that brings a long-awaited pregnancy.
The possibilities of modern medicine are very extensive, and most of the problems associated with infertility are curable and solvable. The most important aspect in this matter is a timely visit to a doctor to find out the causes and type of ailment that prevents conception and carrying a healthy pregnancy. Our clinic has all the necessary equipment to identify the cause of infertility, and our highly professional doctors will diagnose you and prescribe an effective course of treatment.