The cessation of menstruation is a natural phenomenon in the life of every representative of the fair sex, but sometimes, due to various changes in the body, early menopause occurs. This is due to a rapid decrease in estrogen levels, which may be due to both heredity and various diseases. To maintain important functions of the body at the onset of early menopause, hormone—based treatment is prescribed.
Normally, the extinction of ovarian function begins after 45 years. For some, menstruation may stop at a young age. This is accompanied not only by the extinction of reproductive function, but also by trophic changes, metabolic disorders, emotional disorders, and a significant deterioration in general well-being. Representatives of the fair sex, whose extinction of reproductive function comes in due time, as a rule, do not experience such pronounced problems, in particular, they are psychologically ready for the fact that each menstruation may be the last.
Early menopause in women
The termination of the ovaries can be said with a steady cessation of menstruation for 12 months. This can happen at any age. Normally, this phenomenon occurs in 45-55 years. The gradual extinction of ovarian function lasts on average 1.5 years.
Premature pause may be associated with ovarian diseases or their surgical removal. But the cessation of menstruation sometimes occurs spontaneously. This condition is called the syndrome of premature ovarian exhaustion.
Most often, people with obesity who have irregular sex life, as well as smokers who sit on low-calorie diets, face premature termination of menstruation. These factors provoke the suppression of the female genital glands.
Both late and early menopause in women is bad. This condition requires observation by a doctor and receiving maintenance and replacement therapy with hormonal agents. Only 10% do not notice any unpleasant symptoms when menstruation stops. Most suffer from this condition with a significant deterioration in their well-being, therefore they need treatment.
At what age does early menopause occur
An early pause is considered to have occurred at the age of 40-45 years. Stopping menstruation even earlier is considered premature. It can come at any age, even in 20-30 years.
Termination of menstruation at a young age is often associated with premature depletion of the ovaries. Their function stops gradually, ovulation happens periodically, during this period you can get pregnant. After the complete cessation of the sexual glands, conception is impossible, since the process of egg maturation in the ovaries stops.
The age of early menopause in women is individual, as is the timing of complete extinction of ovarian function. The earliest menopause associated with diseases of the genitals can come as early as 17-20 years. You need to know that this can happen at any age, and at the first manifestations, contact a gynecologist in order to prescribe funds for treatment.
What is the danger of early menopause
The first thing that worries young ladies who are faced with an early termination of menstruation is the extinction of reproductive function. Now many people prefer to give birth to a child after 30, having a stable financial situation and having made a career, but premature exhaustion of the ovaries can interfere with maternal happiness.
Due to a violation of the production of sex hormones during early menopause, dysfunctional uterine bleeding may occur in women 40 years and younger. They can occur both during menstruation and in the middle of the cycle and are dangerous to health. Such bleeding alternates with periods of prolonged absence of menstruation, leads to the loss of a large amount of blood and anemia, therefore they need urgent treatment with means that normalize the work of the reproductive organs.
A decrease in the level of estrogens in the body is accompanied by an increased leaching of calcium, which is dangerous because it leads to osteoporosis. Bones become less durable, so even with a slight mechanical impact, pathological fractures are possible. Early menopause in women 40 years and younger may be accompanied by complications such as high blood pressure, atherosclerosis, autoimmune processes, diabetes mellitus, the risk of heart attack or stroke, as well as neoplasms of the mammary glands, uterus, female genital glands.
No matter how old the early menopause would have come, it is accompanied by the most serious emotional disorders, which are dangerous nervous breakdowns. Patients become nervous, irritable, they are tormented by mood swings, tearfulness. These emotional changes are caused not only by feelings about their condition, but also by fluctuations in hormone levels.
It should be borne in mind that a premature pause may occur due to dangerous diseases of the female reproductive system. Therefore, when the cycle changes, the disappearance of menstruation, it is necessary to undergo a comprehensive diagnosis and identify what caused this condition. In some cases, serious treatment of the underlying disease is necessary.
Causes of early menopause
In some, the cause of early menopause is genetic features. Today it is reliably known that there are genes that already at a young age have a depressing effect on the ovaries. This leads to the early onset of menopause. If the female relatives had a premature extinction of the ovaries, it is likely that they will have to expect suppression of ovarian function at a young age.
Premature pause may also be associated with various hereditary pathologies that do not concern the reproductive system, for example, with galactosemia.
In autoimmune pathology, the number of follicles can decrease rapidly due to the body’s autoaggression against its own tissues. Connective tissue forms in place of the follicles, the ovaries are rapidly depleted.
Symptoms of early menopause may appear due to surgical removal of the ovaries. Such operations are usually performed for injuries, tumors, ectopic pregnancy and other serious diseases that cannot be treated with medications.
Suppression of ovarian function can be provoked by ionizing radiation of high intensity, as well as chemotherapy for cancer patients.
Symptoms of early menopause
The suppression of ovarian function is a gradual process that lasts months and years. The first symptom of early menopause is a change in the menstrual cycle. Most menstruation during this period becomes more rare than usual. The interval between them reaches more than 35 days. In some cases, the cycle may be shortened on the contrary.
The nature of menstruation itself is also changing. The discharge may become too abundant or, on the contrary, scanty. This phenomenon is also characteristic of the early stage of menopause.
Among the signs of early menopause, periodic cessation of menstruation should also be highlighted. The break between them can reach several months. The fact that hormonal restructuring of the body has finally occurred can be said in cases when menstruation has been absent for more than a year.
One of the classic symptoms of early menopause in women is hot flashes. They periodically note redness of the face and upper torso, fever, shortness of breath. Seizures occur suddenly, accompanied by sweating. At such moments, performance decreases, irritability, tearfulness appears.
Estrogen receptors are present in almost all organs and tissues, so the signs of early menopause are diverse and affect the entire body.
During the period of extinction of ovarian function, the heart muscle suffers. There are chest pains, interruptions in the work of the heart. The ability to tolerate physical activity is significantly reduced. Vascular tone disorders are also often manifested. Symptoms of these disorders can be headaches, dizziness, jumps in blood pressure.
The symptoms of early menopause, which occurred before the age of 45, include an increase in body weight. Due to a decrease in the level of estrogens, the lipid metabolism in the body changes, so the figure can change significantly. Even those who have been slim all their lives are beginning to gain weight rapidly.
Due to the decrease in estrogens, the tone of the vagina and urinary tract decreases. This leads to dissatisfaction with intimate life, and can also manifest itself in the form of urinary incontinence when coughing, laughing. The mucous membrane of the genitals becomes dry. This affects not only the quality of sex, but also causes a feeling of discomfort: burning, itching.
Symptoms of early menopause in women also include changes in the musculoskeletal system. They are caused by osteoporosis and manifest themselves in the form of curvature of the limbs, spine, joint pain, pathological fractures.
Some are also concerned about other manifestations, for example, deterioration of vision, hearing, memory, absent-mindedness, dry skin and the rapid appearance of signs of aging, brittle hair and nails, decreased libido.
Early stages of menopause
If ladies over 45-50 years old are already expecting the cessation of menstruation and easily recognize the first manifestations of ovarian depression, in youth not everyone pays attention to the main signs of the initial stage.
As already mentioned, the first harbinger of ovarian depletion at the initial stage is changes in the menstrual cycle, changes in the amount of secretions. This may be a manifestation of other diseases, so a comprehensive diagnosis is necessary. If any diseases are detected, treatment with medications is necessary, and when ovarian function fades, hormone replacement therapy is necessary.
Diagnosis of early menopause
When the first manifestations of ovarian function depression appear, it is necessary to make an appointment with a gynecologist. He will collect anamnesis, assess clinical symptoms, and conduct an examination of the genitals.
With signs of early menopause in women, it is necessary to determine the level of hormones. The amount of estradiol will be reduced already at the very initial stage.
Ultrasound with the help of a transvaginal sensor, colpocytology, the study of lipid metabolism, Dopplerography are also used as part of the diagnosis. If a more detailed diagnosis is necessary, consultations of an endocrinologist, neurologist, oncologist are prescribed.
Treatment of early menopause
What to do with early menopause? If this condition has already occurred, it is impossible to make the ovaries work as before. It is necessary to accept the fact of transition to a new period of life and begin treatment of early menopause in women. This will restore the previous quality of life, prevent complications caused by a decrease in estrogen levels.
Treatment of early menopause in women has several directions. The first is to eliminate the lack of hormones in the body. The right dosage allows you to prevent many changes in the body and ensure good health. Also prescribe local remedies to combat vaginal dryness, drugs to strengthen bones, antidepressants.
Symptomatic therapy is prescribed depending on the complaints. These can be drugs to lower blood pressure, normalize vascular tone.
Physiotherapy procedures, massage, physical therapy are also connected.
Drugs for early menopause
What medications should I take for early menopause? The most pronounced effect is provided by hormone replacement therapy. These drugs contain estrogens, progestogens in case of premature pause, combined agents with progestins and androgens are also prescribed. The drugs are selected individually, before taking them, you need to consult with a gynecologist. Hormones are taken not only in the form of tablets, but also in the form of vaginal creams and candles. Local administration of estrogens helps to get rid of dryness and discomfort.
Treatment with drugs based on phytoestrogens helps to stop the symptoms of early menopause. These drugs with early menopause of natural origin have a minimum of contraindications, have a pronounced therapeutic effect. They improve well-being, eliminate vasomotor disorders, discomfort in the genital area, delay the aging process. Reviews of these remedies for early menopause prove that they allow you to return to excellent health and return to your usual lifestyle.
It is necessary to take remedies that prevent the leaching of calcium from the bones. They will help prevent fractures and joint problems.
Excellent results are obtained by means based on polypeptides. They normalize the work of the epiphyseal-hypothalamic system, restore the balance of gonadotropins, which is disturbed during the menopausal period.